The fall of Nineveh gave Egypt the change to reclaim Syria and Pharao Necho made an attempt to regain it. Nebuchadrezzar defeated him at Carchemish (605 BCE). He then recovered the whole of the West and seems to have been threatening Egypt when recalled to Babylon by news of his father's death. He also captured Jerusalem (Daniel 1-1).
The Nabu-kudur-uzur of the Babylonians was the son and successor of Nabopolassar, founder of the New Babylonian empire (604-561 BCE). He was the greatest king of Babylonia since Hammurabi and made Babylon one of the wonders of the world. He fortified it with a triple line of walls and a moat and he restored temples and cities throughout his kingdom.
The familiar form 'Nebuchadnezzar', often retained in the present, is an error.